Low back pain is a universal human experience -- almost everyone has it at some point. The lower back, which starts below the ribcage, is called the lumbar region. Pain here can be intense and is one of the top causes of missed work. Fortunately, low back pain often gets better on its own. When it doesn't, there are effective treatments.
Sciatica refers to pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which branches from your lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg. Typically, sciatica affects only one side of your body. Sciatica most commonly occurs when a herniated disk, bone spur on the spine or narrowing of the spine (spinal stenosis) compresses part of the nerve. This causes inflammation, pain and often some numbness in the affected leg.
Degenerative disk disease is when normal changes that take place in the disks of your spine cause pain.Spinal disks are like shock absorbers between the vertebrae, or bones, of your spine. They help your back stay flexible, so you can bend and twist. As you get older, they can show signs of wear and tear. They begin to break down and may not work as well.
An epidural steroid injection is a spinal procedure in which a steroid and usually an anesthetic are injected in the spinal region called the epidural space. The nerves, spinal fluid, and spinal cord are enclosed within a membrane sack called the dura. The injection is outside this membrane. It is useful to reduce inflammation from nerve roots or intervertebral discs. Decreasing the inflammation may decrease the pain originating from these structures.
Lumbar discectomy is a surgery to remove a herniated or degenerative disc in the lower spine. The incision is made posterior, through the back muscles, to remove the disc pressing on the nerve. Discectomy may be recommended if physical therapy or medication fail to relieve leg or back pain or if you have signs of nerve damage, such as weakness or loss of feeling in your legs. The surgery can be performed in an open or minimally invasive technique.
Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure used to correct problems with the small bones in the spine (vertebrae). It is essentially a "welding" process. The basic idea is to fuse together two or more vertebrae so that they heal into a single, solid bone. This is done to eliminate painful motion or to restore stability to the spine.
The disc is the soft cushioning structure located between the individual bones of the spine, called “vertebra.” It is made of cartilage-like tissue and consists of an outer portion, called the annulus, and an inner portion, called the nucleus (Figure 1). In most cases, the disc is flexible enough to allow the spine to bend.